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Events that he wrote down in his diary, known to us as In Stahlgewittern. In the fields surrounding the farm and cemetery Simon and his team found archaeological evidence of this battle.

In the podcast Simon and Dan talk about these discoveries and about the plans Peter, Rob and Simon have with the excavation at Höhe As we are more than halfway through the centenary of the First World War, it is poignant to see an international European effort to excavate a site where the men of both sides died.

German fortifications were complex and renowned for their impregnability — now, a hundred years, we can examine why.

Our International Project brings professionals, enthusiasts and devotees together in the mutual aim of protecting a significant Great War site, a genuinely lasting legacy of the legacy of the First World War Centenary.

Sponsoring private companies and public institutions have the opportunity to be associated with this flagship excavation, to really make a difference, and to be part of something that is of fundamental importance.

This exciting opportunity is likely to have a lasting legacy. In addition to sponsorship, crowdfunding will provide an opportunity for everyone who wishes to, to take part in the excavation.

Other benefits, dependant on level of giving, might include organised visits to the site, and opportunities to meet the team and see real archaeology in action.

Unlocking the secrets of a threatened Great War battlefield, preserving the past for future generations.

After 8 May stronger enemy patrols appeared, showing a sudden reluctance to withdraw. It became apparent that the enemy had set up a counterreconnaissance screen and was becoming as assiduous in his attempts to locate 2d Division defensive strongpoints as were the friendly patrols in their search for enemy strength.

By 10 May the enemy's build-up was in full swing. By 14 May men of Colonel Hanes's battalion had the strongest positions they had ever occupied, although they had taken a few enemy positions they considered as good.

The confidence the men had in their ability to withstand an enemy attack confidence that had increased with each log and sand bag, antipersonnel mine and roll of wire that had gone into their structure for defense was equally strong.

General Ruffner lent his helicopter to Colonel Hanes so he could inspect the positions from the air. If they've seen what I've seen today, and if they are smart, they won't even give us a nibble.

If the enemy was going to attack the 3d Battalion, however, it appeared that one of his most suitable routes of approach would lead him squarely into Company K on the top of Hill by now the men who held Hill had styled it Bunker Hill.

Twelve hundred yards in front of Company K, and three hundred feet higher, was Hill Instead of the usual steep ravine, a smooth saddle connected the two hills.

Hill was a squat mass covered with patches of grass and scattered clumps of trees. There were enough trees on the south slopes to conceal the movement and assembly of enemy troops, especially at dusk.

They would then be within easy range having only to cross the connecting saddle before making the final assault on Company K's dome-shaped hill, or move down the ridge to attack Company L, which was holding the right flank of the battalion and was astride a ridge similarly connected to Hill Company K put two barbed-wire aprons across its end of the saddle.

One stretched along three sides at the base of Hill The other was approximately two hundred yards beyond.

Members of Company K fastened trip flares and explosive charges to the wire, and planted antipersonnel mines between the aprons.

This, they figured, would slow the attack when it came. Twenty-three bunkers were located on the small but prominent top of Hill Other positions of Company K were stretched along the ridgelines that slanted down to the southwest and southeast.

The only apparent weakness in the defense position of Company K was its extensive front and the uncompleted prearranged close-support artillery concentrations conditions that applied equally to the remainder of the 3d Battalion.

Because of the 2d Battalion's patrol base located in front of Hanes's battalion, and because of the extensive patrolling conducted during the build-up period, firing of desired prearranged artillery concentrations was exceedingly difficult.

Later, because of the numerous patrols and long-range observation posts dispatched and maintained by the 3d Battalion, artillery forward observers were unable to register all close-support fires.

The first fifteen days of May had passed without an enemy offensive. On the 16th there was a low, heavy overcast that prevented the use of observation or fighter aircraft.

Stronger attacks struck both the 1st and 2d Battalions of the 38th Infantry that night. Before daylight on 17 May, the 2d Battalion was ordered to withdraw from its patrol base to positions in rear of the regimental main line of resistance.

To the northeast, Chinese penetrated the lines of the 1st Battalion and seized the top of Hill Colonel Hanes's 3d Battalion, however, spent an uneventful night.

The next day 17 May men of that battalion strung more wire and prepared additional fougasses that they emplaced along probable enemy avenues of approach.

They were to be set off by plunger-type detonator during the attack that everyone expected would come that night. A final adjustment was made on the left of the battalion's sector when its area was reduced by moving a unit of the 9th Infantry into line.

After the long period of waiting and planning for the big attack, the suspense was over. Most of the men, confident of their positions, welcomed the attack.

The day was hot and sultry. Late in the afternoon, Company K's support platoon patrolled to Hill It met heavy opposition where there had been no enemy before.

From Hill the commander of Company K Capt. Brownell watched the progress of the patrol. He could see some Chinese troops following it back and others moving on the forward slope of Hill He placed artillery and mortar fire on the enemy.

The Chinese began registering their mortar and artillery fire. Enemy troops crowded against the front line across the battalion's entire sector.

The battalion had numerous artillery missions fired and a number of effective air strikes were made. All patrols of the battalion were actively engaged.

With the attack imminent, Company K squared away. Captain Brownell, having previously located his command post too far to the rear, took his position at the very point of the defense in a bunker that was the battalion's observation post.

His runner, an observer for the mm mortars, and two intelligence observers from the battalion's Headquarters Company, shared the bunker with him.

Through error, his artillery forward observer was not with him. In other bunkers men rechecked their rifles and grenades each man had twenty grenades and waited quietly as the dusk deepened into darkness.

A light fog formed and the air became damp and noticeably cold after the sultry day. Everyone expected the attack to commence with a rapid succession of explosions from trip flares and mines.

The mines would kill a lot of the enemy, they thought, and slacken the attack. But it didn't work out that way. At about there was the sound of whistles and of a bugle or two.

Nothing else happened for half an hour until the enemy troops reached the first wire barrier a hundred yards away. A flare or two appeared.

Several minutes later a few of the antipersonnel mines exploded. At the same time, the Chinese opened fire. Captain Brownell's men could see none of the enemy yet, but from the steady sound of the enemy's fire, Brownell could measure the Chinese advance.

Another half hour passed. The enemy's fire increased gradually. Finally the Americans could hear the Chinese soldiers talking, although they could see none of them.

They wondered why more of the antipersonnel mines had not exploded. Company K held its fire until the enemy reached the second wire barrier.

Instead of moving frontally, the leading Chinese had slipped around to the west, cut the barbed wire in front of the 1st Platoon, and crawled up the steep part of the hill.

At the point of first contact, the Americans opened fire with rifles and machine guns, and tossed grenades down the hill.

Quickly Company K came to life, the action spreading in both directions like a grass fire. Captain Brownell tried to get artillery fire.

The artillery forward observer, however, was at a different observation post and, within a few minutes after the firing began, the telephone line went out between Captain Brownell's command post and the artillery observer's bunker.

Unable to reach the observer, Brownell relayed his request to battalion headquarters, experiencing difficulties with communications in the process.

In rapid succession, the lines to the 1st Platoon and to the battalion failed, apparently having been cut either by the Chinese or by their mortar and artillery fire.

Company K had failed to bury all of its telephone lines. Attached to and integrated with the defense of Company K were men from Company M manning machine guns and recoilless rifles.

The lieutenant in charge was a replacement who had been recalled to active duty recently without a refresher course. He and some of his men occupied several bunkers near the point of first enemy contact.

By the time the exchange of fire had increased to thunderous volume, the platoon leader left his bunker and ran a short distance to an adjoining one.

After a few moments, he added, "It's getting too hot around here for me! He left and, in the darkness and through heavy enemy fire, headed toward the rear.

Between 15 and 20 men followed him those from the bunker he had just left and other men from several nearby positions.

This original break occurred near the limiting point between the two platoons on line the 1st and the 3d. Kantner runner from the 1st Platoon ran to the point of the hill to tell Captain Brownell that the line's broken.

The line to the 1st Platoon was out. He sent Corporal Kantner back with instructions to tell everyone to hold where he was until Brownell had a chance to find out what happened.

Within a minute or two, an enemy shell landed squarely on top of the command-post bunker. The explosion damaged the radio by which Captain Brownell had communicated with battalion headquarters.

Thus, within fifteen minutes or less, Captain Brownell had lost communication with his platoons, his artillery forward observer, and battalion headquarters.

Leaving the battalion personnel in the bunker, Captain Brownell started toward the bunkers the men of Company M had occupied on the top of the hill.

Chinese soldiers were wandering freely over the yard-long point of Hill the key terrain in Company K's defense.

Without communication, Brownell's positions on this important part of Hill crumbled quickly. Hearing the firing from the adjoining position suddenly end, the men from one bunker after another learned that the line was falling back.

Chinese and Americans walked around together in the darkness. Rowe occupied the northernmost bunker, guarding the approach to the hill. Not realizing the adjoining positions were abandoned, these men remained until it was too late to leave.

Meanwhile, the battalion intelligence men, left in the bunker that Captain Brownell had recently occupied, moved to the bunker recently vacated by the lieutenant from Company M, and got in telephone communication with Colonel Hanes.

Hanes immediately instructed his artillery liaison officer to place artillery fire in front of Company K.

The first half hour of the enemy attack had created complete confusion at the very top of Hill Two men manning a mm recoilless-rifle position on the left side of the high point of the hill and just left of the steep ridge along which the Chinese had crawled up to Company K's position were miraculously able to make contact with the battalion's forward relay switchboard by sound-powered telephone.

From their bunker they calmly reported the situation as they saw it to Colonel Hanes who, in turn, informed them of the situation known to the battalion.

Hanes asked them if they could adjust artillery where they knew or suspected the enemy to be, bearing in mind that because of the confused situation and conflicting reports great care must be used so that no rounds fell on the battle positions.

For a considerable time these men effectively adjusted fire as close to their bunker as was possible. Communications to this position remained effective during the entire night.

With no previous experience in the adjustment of artillery, the two men helped seal off the battle position from further enemy reinforcements.

Unable to find the men of Company M at their bunkers, Captain Brownell hurried on back to the command post of the 3d Platoon.

This platoon had telephone communication with battalion headquarters. He called Colonel Hanes to report the loss of the point of his hill, to request permission to use his support platoon in a counterattack Colonel Hanes had placed restrictions on the use of this platoon , and to ask for artillery fire.

A few of the men who had abandoned their positions walked on down the trail that led south to Colonel Hanes's battalion headquarters.

Most of them went back only a short distance where the leader of the 3d Platoon Lt. Price stopped them and began forming a new line between the open flanks of Company K's line.

Although this was soon done, Captain Brownell's defense was vulnerable since he had lost the highest and most important area of his sector, and about a third of his line was hastily formed and lacked protection of even a foxhole.

Fortunately, enemy activity temporarily dropped off. Having obtained permission to use the 2d Platoon and having moved it into position for the attack, Captain Brownell tried to precede his counter-attack by placing artillery fire on his former position.

A long delay followed, partly because of faulty communications, partly because Brownell was out of touch with his forward observer and was unable to adjust the desired fire properly, but primarily because Captain Brownell's situation report was in conflict with the information Hanes was receiving from the battalion's intelligence men and from the mm recoilless-rifle team who were adjusting artillery fire for him.

Until a more accurate picture could be received, Colonel Hanes considered it advisable to seal the penetration with available artillery fire while the remainder of the 38th Field Artillery Battalion, which was in direct support of the 3d Battalion, supported Company L, which was under tremendous pressure at the time.

Meanwhile, Lieutenants Price and Herbert E. Whitten lined up approximately thirty-five men who were to make the counterattack.

They also arranged for 2 machine-gun crews, 2 BAR men, and 6 riflemen to fire onto the point of the hill when Clark's platoon moved forward.

At the same time, a few of the men including the lieutenant from Company M who started the movement to abandon the position had reached the bottom of the hill.

Colonel Hanes met them. And dammit, we're not beaten and won't be if every man does his share! They turned around and started the long climb up the hill.

The lieutenant from Company M returned to his unit in due time although he was wounded in the side, arms, and leg before again reaching the protection of his bunker.

After waiting more than an hour for artillery fire, which could not be properly adjusted because of his faulty communications, Captain Brownell and his platoon leaders decided to launch the attack without support.

Although he expected considerable trouble, Captain Brownell was afraid that if he delayed the attack any longer the Chinese would discover the weakly held gap in his line, break through in force, and threaten or possibly destroy the battalion's entire defensive position.

With Captain Brownell, two platoon leaders, and Sergeant Whitten guiding, the man skirmish line started forward, the men firing steadily and walking erect under the supporting rifle and machine-gun fire.

The enemy fired back with two machine guns one of their own and one Company K had abandoned on the top of the hill.

Both sides used American white phosphorus grenades of which there was an abundant supply on the hill. As Company K's attack progressed, the men threw one or two grenades into each bunker they passed; otherwise they and the Chinese used them for illumination.

At the moment of a grenade burst the hill and the line of infantrymen stood out prominently in the eerie white light. In the alternate periods of darkness, the men could see nothing.

The first white phosphorus grenade thrown by the enemy landed at one end of the skirmish line. The entire line stopped momentarily.

One man fell dead with a bullet through his neck. A burning streamer from another grenade hit Cpl. Penwell's rifle, setting the stock on fire and burning Penwell's sleeve.

Captain Brownell's counterattack progressed steadily, moving a yard or two with each grenade-burst. As the line reached the highest part of the hill, a grenade-burst revealed See Chinese 15 or 20 feet ahead, kneeling side by side in firing position.

Butler, who had thrown the grenade, yelled, "Get them where you can see them! Half a dozen men fired at once.

At the same time, a Chinese whistle sounded and when the next grenade exploded two of the Chinese had disappeared. The third, still kneeling, was dead.

A rifle left by one of his comrades leaned against his body. Enemy opposition diminished suddenly and then, except for a few rifle shots, ended.

By , 18 May, Captain Brownell's counterattacking force had spread out to occupy the rest of Hill Eight men had been wounded during the attack; only one had been killed.

It had been easier than any of the men expected. Captain Brownell immediately reorganized the highest portion of his company's sector. The men set up machine guns again, reallocated the supply of ammunition and grenades, and reoccupied all of the bunkers except the one farthest north.

This bunker was still occupied by Hipp, Ricki and Rowe, who had remained in it throughout the enemy occupancy of the hill.

They had heard enemy soldiers talking and moving nearby, but did nothing to cause a disturbance.

Dan Snow met our lead archaeologist Simon Verdegem on the eve of the commemorations of the Third Battle of Ypres to have a chat about archaeology of the First World War and the forthcoming Höhe 80 — Project Whitesheet a crowdfunded excavation of a First World War battlefield.

Symbolically the meeting took place at Ruisseau Farm Cemetary, at the banks of the Steenbeek river where the advance of the Guards Division stopped in the evening of July 31st It was also at this location, in this farmstead, that Ernst Jünger fought that same day, trying to hold back the advancing Guards.

Events that he wrote down in his diary, known to us as In Stahlgewittern. In the fields surrounding the farm and cemetery Simon and his team found archaeological evidence of this battle.

In the podcast Simon and Dan talk about these discoveries and about the plans Peter, Rob and Simon have with the excavation at Höhe As we are more than halfway through the centenary of the First World War, it is poignant to see an international European effort to excavate a site where the men of both sides died.

German fortifications were complex and renowned for their impregnability — now, a hundred years, we can examine why. Our International Project brings professionals, enthusiasts and devotees together in the mutual aim of protecting a significant Great War site, a genuinely lasting legacy of the legacy of the First World War Centenary.

Sponsoring private companies and public institutions have the opportunity to be associated with this flagship excavation, to really make a difference, and to be part of something that is of fundamental importance.

This exciting opportunity is likely to have a lasting legacy. Company K put two barbed-wire aprons across its end of the saddle.

One stretched along three sides at the base of Hill The other was approximately two hundred yards beyond. Members of Company K fastened trip flares and explosive charges to the wire, and planted antipersonnel mines between the aprons.

This, they figured, would slow the attack when it came. Twenty-three bunkers were located on the small but prominent top of Hill Other positions of Company K were stretched along the ridgelines that slanted down to the southwest and southeast.

The only apparent weakness in the defense position of Company K was its extensive front and the uncompleted prearranged close-support artillery concentrations conditions that applied equally to the remainder of the 3d Battalion.

Because of the 2d Battalion's patrol base located in front of Hanes's battalion, and because of the extensive patrolling conducted during the build-up period, firing of desired prearranged artillery concentrations was exceedingly difficult.

Later, because of the numerous patrols and long-range observation posts dispatched and maintained by the 3d Battalion, artillery forward observers were unable to register all close-support fires.

The first fifteen days of May had passed without an enemy offensive. On the 16th there was a low, heavy overcast that prevented the use of observation or fighter aircraft.

Stronger attacks struck both the 1st and 2d Battalions of the 38th Infantry that night. Before daylight on 17 May, the 2d Battalion was ordered to withdraw from its patrol base to positions in rear of the regimental main line of resistance.

To the northeast, Chinese penetrated the lines of the 1st Battalion and seized the top of Hill Colonel Hanes's 3d Battalion, however, spent an uneventful night.

The next day 17 May men of that battalion strung more wire and prepared additional fougasses that they emplaced along probable enemy avenues of approach.

They were to be set off by plunger-type detonator during the attack that everyone expected would come that night.

A final adjustment was made on the left of the battalion's sector when its area was reduced by moving a unit of the 9th Infantry into line.

After the long period of waiting and planning for the big attack, the suspense was over. Most of the men, confident of their positions, welcomed the attack.

The day was hot and sultry. Late in the afternoon, Company K's support platoon patrolled to Hill It met heavy opposition where there had been no enemy before.

From Hill the commander of Company K Capt. Brownell watched the progress of the patrol. He could see some Chinese troops following it back and others moving on the forward slope of Hill He placed artillery and mortar fire on the enemy.

The Chinese began registering their mortar and artillery fire. Enemy troops crowded against the front line across the battalion's entire sector.

The battalion had numerous artillery missions fired and a number of effective air strikes were made. All patrols of the battalion were actively engaged.

With the attack imminent, Company K squared away. Captain Brownell, having previously located his command post too far to the rear, took his position at the very point of the defense in a bunker that was the battalion's observation post.

His runner, an observer for the mm mortars, and two intelligence observers from the battalion's Headquarters Company, shared the bunker with him.

Through error, his artillery forward observer was not with him. In other bunkers men rechecked their rifles and grenades each man had twenty grenades and waited quietly as the dusk deepened into darkness.

A light fog formed and the air became damp and noticeably cold after the sultry day. Everyone expected the attack to commence with a rapid succession of explosions from trip flares and mines.

The mines would kill a lot of the enemy, they thought, and slacken the attack. But it didn't work out that way.

At about there was the sound of whistles and of a bugle or two. Nothing else happened for half an hour until the enemy troops reached the first wire barrier a hundred yards away.

A flare or two appeared. Several minutes later a few of the antipersonnel mines exploded. At the same time, the Chinese opened fire. Captain Brownell's men could see none of the enemy yet, but from the steady sound of the enemy's fire, Brownell could measure the Chinese advance.

Another half hour passed. The enemy's fire increased gradually. Finally the Americans could hear the Chinese soldiers talking, although they could see none of them.

They wondered why more of the antipersonnel mines had not exploded. Company K held its fire until the enemy reached the second wire barrier.

Instead of moving frontally, the leading Chinese had slipped around to the west, cut the barbed wire in front of the 1st Platoon, and crawled up the steep part of the hill.

At the point of first contact, the Americans opened fire with rifles and machine guns, and tossed grenades down the hill.

Quickly Company K came to life, the action spreading in both directions like a grass fire. Captain Brownell tried to get artillery fire. The artillery forward observer, however, was at a different observation post and, within a few minutes after the firing began, the telephone line went out between Captain Brownell's command post and the artillery observer's bunker.

Unable to reach the observer, Brownell relayed his request to battalion headquarters, experiencing difficulties with communications in the process.

In rapid succession, the lines to the 1st Platoon and to the battalion failed, apparently having been cut either by the Chinese or by their mortar and artillery fire.

Company K had failed to bury all of its telephone lines. Attached to and integrated with the defense of Company K were men from Company M manning machine guns and recoilless rifles.

The lieutenant in charge was a replacement who had been recalled to active duty recently without a refresher course. He and some of his men occupied several bunkers near the point of first enemy contact.

By the time the exchange of fire had increased to thunderous volume, the platoon leader left his bunker and ran a short distance to an adjoining one.

After a few moments, he added, "It's getting too hot around here for me! He left and, in the darkness and through heavy enemy fire, headed toward the rear.

Between 15 and 20 men followed him those from the bunker he had just left and other men from several nearby positions.

This original break occurred near the limiting point between the two platoons on line the 1st and the 3d. Kantner runner from the 1st Platoon ran to the point of the hill to tell Captain Brownell that the line's broken.

The line to the 1st Platoon was out. He sent Corporal Kantner back with instructions to tell everyone to hold where he was until Brownell had a chance to find out what happened.

Within a minute or two, an enemy shell landed squarely on top of the command-post bunker. The explosion damaged the radio by which Captain Brownell had communicated with battalion headquarters.

Thus, within fifteen minutes or less, Captain Brownell had lost communication with his platoons, his artillery forward observer, and battalion headquarters.

Leaving the battalion personnel in the bunker, Captain Brownell started toward the bunkers the men of Company M had occupied on the top of the hill.

Chinese soldiers were wandering freely over the yard-long point of Hill the key terrain in Company K's defense. Without communication, Brownell's positions on this important part of Hill crumbled quickly.

Hearing the firing from the adjoining position suddenly end, the men from one bunker after another learned that the line was falling back.

Chinese and Americans walked around together in the darkness. Rowe occupied the northernmost bunker, guarding the approach to the hill. Not realizing the adjoining positions were abandoned, these men remained until it was too late to leave.

Meanwhile, the battalion intelligence men, left in the bunker that Captain Brownell had recently occupied, moved to the bunker recently vacated by the lieutenant from Company M, and got in telephone communication with Colonel Hanes.

Hanes immediately instructed his artillery liaison officer to place artillery fire in front of Company K. The first half hour of the enemy attack had created complete confusion at the very top of Hill Two men manning a mm recoilless-rifle position on the left side of the high point of the hill and just left of the steep ridge along which the Chinese had crawled up to Company K's position were miraculously able to make contact with the battalion's forward relay switchboard by sound-powered telephone.

From their bunker they calmly reported the situation as they saw it to Colonel Hanes who, in turn, informed them of the situation known to the battalion.

Hanes asked them if they could adjust artillery where they knew or suspected the enemy to be, bearing in mind that because of the confused situation and conflicting reports great care must be used so that no rounds fell on the battle positions.

For a considerable time these men effectively adjusted fire as close to their bunker as was possible. Communications to this position remained effective during the entire night.

With no previous experience in the adjustment of artillery, the two men helped seal off the battle position from further enemy reinforcements.

Unable to find the men of Company M at their bunkers, Captain Brownell hurried on back to the command post of the 3d Platoon. This platoon had telephone communication with battalion headquarters.

He called Colonel Hanes to report the loss of the point of his hill, to request permission to use his support platoon in a counterattack Colonel Hanes had placed restrictions on the use of this platoon , and to ask for artillery fire.

A few of the men who had abandoned their positions walked on down the trail that led south to Colonel Hanes's battalion headquarters.

Most of them went back only a short distance where the leader of the 3d Platoon Lt. Price stopped them and began forming a new line between the open flanks of Company K's line.

Although this was soon done, Captain Brownell's defense was vulnerable since he had lost the highest and most important area of his sector, and about a third of his line was hastily formed and lacked protection of even a foxhole.

Fortunately, enemy activity temporarily dropped off. Having obtained permission to use the 2d Platoon and having moved it into position for the attack, Captain Brownell tried to precede his counter-attack by placing artillery fire on his former position.

A long delay followed, partly because of faulty communications, partly because Brownell was out of touch with his forward observer and was unable to adjust the desired fire properly, but primarily because Captain Brownell's situation report was in conflict with the information Hanes was receiving from the battalion's intelligence men and from the mm recoilless-rifle team who were adjusting artillery fire for him.

Until a more accurate picture could be received, Colonel Hanes considered it advisable to seal the penetration with available artillery fire while the remainder of the 38th Field Artillery Battalion, which was in direct support of the 3d Battalion, supported Company L, which was under tremendous pressure at the time.

Meanwhile, Lieutenants Price and Herbert E. Whitten lined up approximately thirty-five men who were to make the counterattack.

They also arranged for 2 machine-gun crews, 2 BAR men, and 6 riflemen to fire onto the point of the hill when Clark's platoon moved forward.

At the same time, a few of the men including the lieutenant from Company M who started the movement to abandon the position had reached the bottom of the hill.

Colonel Hanes met them. And dammit, we're not beaten and won't be if every man does his share! They turned around and started the long climb up the hill.

The lieutenant from Company M returned to his unit in due time although he was wounded in the side, arms, and leg before again reaching the protection of his bunker.

After waiting more than an hour for artillery fire, which could not be properly adjusted because of his faulty communications, Captain Brownell and his platoon leaders decided to launch the attack without support.

Although he expected considerable trouble, Captain Brownell was afraid that if he delayed the attack any longer the Chinese would discover the weakly held gap in his line, break through in force, and threaten or possibly destroy the battalion's entire defensive position.

With Captain Brownell, two platoon leaders, and Sergeant Whitten guiding, the man skirmish line started forward, the men firing steadily and walking erect under the supporting rifle and machine-gun fire.

The enemy fired back with two machine guns one of their own and one Company K had abandoned on the top of the hill. Both sides used American white phosphorus grenades of which there was an abundant supply on the hill.

As Company K's attack progressed, the men threw one or two grenades into each bunker they passed; otherwise they and the Chinese used them for illumination.

At the moment of a grenade burst the hill and the line of infantrymen stood out prominently in the eerie white light. In the alternate periods of darkness, the men could see nothing.

The first white phosphorus grenade thrown by the enemy landed at one end of the skirmish line. The entire line stopped momentarily.

One man fell dead with a bullet through his neck. A burning streamer from another grenade hit Cpl. Penwell's rifle, setting the stock on fire and burning Penwell's sleeve.

Captain Brownell's counterattack progressed steadily, moving a yard or two with each grenade-burst. As the line reached the highest part of the hill, a grenade-burst revealed See Chinese 15 or 20 feet ahead, kneeling side by side in firing position.

Butler, who had thrown the grenade, yelled, "Get them where you can see them! Half a dozen men fired at once. At the same time, a Chinese whistle sounded and when the next grenade exploded two of the Chinese had disappeared.

The third, still kneeling, was dead. A rifle left by one of his comrades leaned against his body. Enemy opposition diminished suddenly and then, except for a few rifle shots, ended.

By , 18 May, Captain Brownell's counterattacking force had spread out to occupy the rest of Hill Eight men had been wounded during the attack; only one had been killed.

It had been easier than any of the men expected. Captain Brownell immediately reorganized the highest portion of his company's sector.

The men set up machine guns again, reallocated the supply of ammunition and grenades, and reoccupied all of the bunkers except the one farthest north.

This bunker was still occupied by Hipp, Ricki and Rowe, who had remained in it throughout the enemy occupancy of the hill.

They had heard enemy soldiers talking and moving nearby, but did nothing to cause a disturbance. Nor did anyone bother them.

They heard the American counterattack approaching, saw the Chinese soldiers falling back, and then one of them commenced to fire a BAR to let the other men of Company K know they were still there.

Men in the nearby bunkers, however, assuming that these three men were dead and taking no unnecessary chances, fired upon the bunker the rest of the night.

It was not until daylight that Hipp, Ricki and Rowe were able to identify themselves. Communications were restored, and artillery and 4.

Nothing else happened on Hill for the rest of the night. The men pulled blankets around themselves and sat shivering in the cold, damp bunkers while the night dragged out.

About two hundred enemy had infiltrated Company K's positions through and around the battalion's right flank, and had sniped at supply and communications personnel.

While Hill was secure for the rest of the night, increasing pressure was placed on the extreme left flank of Company K's front and on Company I, to its left.

Preceded by heavy artillery and mortar fire, at the Chinese overran Company I's right flank and the left flank of Company K. The reserve platoon of Company I, which had been given the mission of clearing enemy snipers from the ridge recently occupied by the reserve platoon of Company K, was immediately withdrawn in order to seal the gap between the two companies and restore the line.

The reserve platoon of Company K was ordered to continue its screening mission from Hill south along the ridge to Hill When morning came on 18 May, the men on Hill scouted the area.